Citrus

This section describes the citrus growth cycle and its stages through a practical and dynamic approach. In addition, you will also find a guide detailing the main nutrient deficiencies that can affect your crop and how to identify each of them.

When is the right time to use Stoller solutions in the

citrus growth cycle?

Learn more about the main stages and characteristics.

juvenile stage
vegetative stage
flowering
post-flowering
fruit set
Final maturation stage
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STOLLER INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS (SIS)
Stoller Integrated Solutions feature specific products covering each stage of the entire citrus life cycle. Using the SIS helps protect and bolster plant growth.

What happens at each stage

OF CITRUS DEVELOPMENT?

R1
Reproductive sprouting just starting, with scarcely visible V2 floral buds, generally partially covered by the leaves of this sprouting.
FLOWERING
R2
Floral buds easily visible, still completely covered by the sepals (green leaf-like structures).
FLOWERING
R3
Elongation of petals; the sepals reach half the corolla (white buds).
FLOWERING
R4
Corolla still with the calyx forming just the bottom bit of the fl oral bud.
FLOWERING
R5
Corolla at its maximum size. Buds will imminently open.
FLOWERING
R6
The marked occurrence at this stage is anthesis, when the buds gradually open into fl owers, till practically 100% of the buds are open (full flowering). The final phase of this stage corresponds to the beginning of noticeable fallen and/or dry petals.
FLOWERING
R7
Final phase of flowering, when about two thirds of the petals have already fallen and/or dried and the ovary under development and growth transfers from anthesis to the beginning of fruiting. This is, therefore, a stage in which the transition between flowering and fruiting becomes more evident.
FLOWERING
F1
Fruit growth have started, All petals have fallen and/or dried and the young fruits are 3 to 5 mm in diameter.
FRUIT GROWTH
F2
Fruit still in initial development phase with, diameters measuring between 5 to 10 mm. At this stage physiological fruit drop is at it’s maximum.
FRUIT GROWTH
F3
Fruit at one quarter (1/4) of its full size: 15 to 20 mm in diameter. Physiological dropping of the fruit in its fi nal stage. At the beginning of this stage (fruit at approximately 15 mm in diameter) the increase in fruit size predominantly occurs by cell multiplication in the white tissue (mesocarp) of the fruit.
FRUIT GROWTH
F4
Fruit at half (1/2) it’s fi nal size: 30 to 40 mm in diameter. Soon after phase F3, increase in fruit size is predominantly by cellular expansion, where the loculi and juice vesicles are growing, compressing and stretching the peel.
FRUIT GROWTH
F5
Fruit at three quarters (3/4) of it’s final size: 50 to 60 mm in diameter.
FRUIT GROWTH
F6
Fruit at final size, almost entirely defined, with a reduced rate of growth: 65 to 80 mm in diameter. In this phase, the fruit peel is light green with some yellowish tones, starting the phase of maturation (colour break).
FRUIT GROWTH
F7
Fruit at the intermediary maturation phase, with green-yellowish peel.
FRUIT GROWTH
F8
End of maturation, when the fruit has all its peel yellowishorange color and internal characteristics which are adequate for consumption.
FRUIT GROWTH

Learn how to correctly use Stoller

Solutions IN Corn

Stoller Integrated Solutions Citrus

PRE-FLOWERING
R1/R2

Physiological
1. Hold
0.5 to 1 L/2,000 L
2. Sett
3 to 5 L/2,000 L
3. Nitroplus
5 to 10 L/2,000 L

FLOWERING/POST-FLOWERING
R7/F1

Physiological
1. Stimulate
0.5 L/2,000 L
2. Hold
0.5 to 1 L/2,000 L
3. Sett
3 to 5 L/2,000 L

Nutrition and Defense
4. Citrolino Mag
3 to 5 L/2,000 L
5. Phytogard
2 to 3 L/2,000 L

SUMMER LEAF FLUSH

Physiology
1. Nitroplus
5 to 10 L/2,000 L

Nutrition and Defense
2. Citrolino Mag
3 to 5 L/2,000 L
3. Phytogard
2 to 3 L/2,000 L

AUTUMN LEAF FLUSH
2 applications.

Physiological
1. Mover
3 L/2,000 L
2. Nitroplus
5 to 10 L/2,000 L

Citrus benefits:
Balanced nutrient distribution throughout the plant.
Quickly absorbed by leaves, stems, fruit and roots.
Prevents and corrects micronutrient deficiencies.
Nutritional and hormonal balance to boost fruit quality and yield.
Superior cost-to-benefit ratio.

Identification Guide

Nutrient Deficiency

Zinc
New leaves are small, in the shape of a spear and may have intervein chlororis, as well as short internodes. Reduced blooming occurs and small fruits yield little juice.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Boron
New leaves are small and malformed with undulations at the petioles and outward projecting veins. Reduced sized fruits are deformed and have a thick and irregular peel. Seeds are small, dark and malformed.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Manganese
New leaves of normal size bearing intervein chlorosis, but more pale and less affected than by the lack of zinc. Small fruits and reduced production.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Iron
New leaves bear the typical chlorosis of thin reticula (folds of the membrane). The veins remain green, but with interveinal chlorosis.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Copper
Large new leaves on stems growing excessively as if there were an excess of N. In some varieties death of new stems may occur.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Molybdenium
Old leaves bear yellowish spots; fl owers and small fruits fall off.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Nitrogen
Old leaves bearing a homogeneous yellowing occur. Vegetation is poor with small leaves and small fruits have a thin peel.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Potassium
Symptoms of potassium defi ciency are more visible on the fruits which are smaller and have a smooth and thin peel. Leaves and fruit may fall off prematurely.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Calcium
Young leaves show a yellowing from the borders to the centre, as well as the death of new stems. Poor shoot and petiole development occurs as a result of low resistance to drought causing leaf, ower, and fruit drop.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Phosphorus
Old leaves have a copper tint; leaves and fl ower buds fall off. The peel of the fruits have a rough, thick and spongy feel and fruits have a hollow centre.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Magnesium
Old leaves may bear a yellowing from the tip to the leafstalk in the form of an inverted “V”.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Sulfur
New small leaves have a homogeneous yellowing.
MACRONUTRIENTS

Check out some studies on 

Stoller products

“I saw a clear improvement in tree appearance after using the Stoller Program. Better branching, more uniform sprouting and a good leaf flush early on, anticipating the orchard’s maturation process. The plants were more resistant to diseases, and yields became much more consistent after years of using Stoller products.”

DALTON CÉSAR BOLDRINI
(BEBEDOURO/SP)

“After consistently using the Stoller Program for Citrus, I noticed a better leaf flush in my orchard. Even in the drought, there are more lateral growth, improved fruit picking and quick development in early fruit sets. I saw a lot of positive results after the extended use of the Stoller Program for Citrus (Stimulate, Citrolino SP, SETT Citrus, Phytogard Mg and Stoller 10-10-08).”

RUBENS CELSO BORTOLAN
(BEBEDOURO/SP)