Corn

This section describes the corn growth cycle and its stages through a practical and dynamic approach. In addition, you will also find a guide detailing the main nutrient deficiencies that can affect your crop and how to identify each of them.

When is the right time to use Stoller solutions in the

CORN growth cycle?

Learn more about the main stages and characteristics.

What happens at each stage

OF CORN DEVELOPMENT?

VE
Emergence. Begins with the elongation of the primary root followed by the seminar roots which origin from the cotyledonal node. Next, furrowing into the soil surface, the coleoptile emerges to support the plumules. It is made up by five rudimental leaves that emerge from the interior of the coleoptile, starting the growth of the aboveground plant. The seed remains under the soil surface.
VEGETATION
V1
Following the emergence (VE), the subsequent vegetative stages are identified by the successive expansion of the leaves. Each expanded leaf presents visible auricular (collar area). This is the identification criteria of each vegetative stage. The lower and round shaped leaf is not considered for the counting. Thus, the V1 stage is identified by the expansion of the first apical leaf and visible auricular (collar). The seminal roots begin growth and branching. At this time the stem apex of the plant is below the soil surface.
VEGETATION
V2
Second expanded leaf with visible collar. The plant is ready to start the photosynthetic activity. The branched seminal roots and the nodal roots are in greatly growth. The stem apex still remains under the soil surface.
VEGETATION
V3
Third expanded leaf with visible auricular. Photosynthetic activity in progress. The nutritional reserves are running out. Seminal roots activities ceased. Nodal roots are growing and branching. The stem apex remains under the soil surface.
VEGETATION
V4
Fourth leaf expanded with visible collar. Root system in development with differentiated branches and absorbent hair. The stem apex (growing point) is still below the soil surface. The differentiation between male (panicle) and female (ears) flowers starts between the stages V4 and V6, defining the potential yield of the plant.
VEGETATION
V5 V6 V7 VN
The identifi cation of the phenological vegetative stage of the maize is based in the observation of the successive leave expansions along with the visualization of the auriculars. Following the expansion of the fourth leaf (V4) occurs the expansion of the fifth (V5), sixth (V6), seventh (V7) and so on until the “n-leaf” (Vn) corresponding the last one formed before the differentiation of the male inflorescence (tassel). According to the genotype, 18 or more leaves of corn might be observed. From this point on only phenologic vegetative stage most important for the management of the culture will be illustrated. V5 to V6 stages the growth area reaches the surface of the soil.
VEGETATION
V8
Plant with the eighth leaf expanded and visible collar. Root system well distributed in the soil and the adventitious roots begin to grow. The intense elongation of the stalk in height and diameter is observed. Accentuates the development of the male inflorescence (tassel) and the development of the ears increases between the sixth and ninth nodes above the soil. Between the stages V7 and V9 the number of grain rows in the ear is confirmed.
VEGETATION
V12
Plant with the twelfth leaf expanded and auricular visible. The adventitious roots are well developed and visible. The plants present 85 to 90% of the leaf area and a high growth rate of the stalk, tassel and upper ear. The tassel reaches maximum development concurrently with the beginning of the silk growth (tassel). Between the stages V12 and V14 the size and number of ear in the plant are confirmed.
VEGETATION
R1
Male fl owering. Ranges from the partial rise to the visualization of the last branch of the tassel. This stage occurs the greatly growth of the ear silks. The male inflorescence is observed to occur 2 to 4 days prior to the manifestation of the silk (tassel). In the USA it corresponds to “VT” stage, that means, “visible tassel”.
BLOOMING
R2
Female flowering and pollination. Starts from the appearance of the first visible ear silk on. The stalk elongation ceases. The ears show their viscid silks, which grow up until pollinated. The silk appears for 3 to 10 days. Pollen grains dispersion occurs 2 to 3 days prior the emission of the silk and lasts 5 to 8 days. In contact with the silk, the pollen grain germinates giving rise to a pollinic tube, responsible for the fecundation of the egg inserted into the ear. Fertilization, on average, occurs 24 hours following pollination.
BLOOMING
R3
Milky kernels. Soluble substances start to accumulate in the grains, increasing their volume and weight. In the seeds, the differentiation of the coleoptile, radicle, and rudimentary leaves begin. The kernels are between white and light yellow on the outside and resemble a blister in shape. By the fingernail-pressing, the grain tegument breaks up releasing a large amount of soluble solids (milk). In the field, the ear silk is verified to drying, darken and cannot be pulled by hand.
BLOOMING
R4
Doughy kernels. The starch accumulation is very prominent, and the kernels gain considerable weight. When fingernail-pressed, the kernels are relatively consistent, with little milk. In the seeds, the embryonary structures are already totally differentiated. In the field, the silk, now darker, is verified to be easily pulled by hand. This stage is known by means of the sweet maize point.
BLOOMING
R5
Farinaceous kernels. The concavity on the upper grain part (dented genotypes) appears. With a larger volume due to the continuous starch accumulation, the kernels are in a transition stage, from the dough to the farinaceous, and become harder and harder. The humidity inside the kernels is about 70%. In the seed, the embryonic leaves are ready. The light shelled cob starts getting darker. It is the optimum point for silage.
BLOOMING
R6
Hard-farinaceous kernels. In the upper part of the kernels of the dented genotypes, the presence of the concavity (dents) is prominent. The starch line is above the half of the kernel indicating the greatly accumulation of starch. Simultaneously, the kernels and the plant lose humidity. The humidity is about 55% in the harder and harder kernels. The seed is morphologically developed.
BLOOMING
R7
Physiological maturity of kernels. Total cease of starch accumulation in the grains and leaf yellowing. It is the maximum dry matter accumulation in the kernels and maximum seed vigor, with 30 to 38% humidity. This stage is identified by a black layer at the point of insertion of the grain into the cob. Harvesting must be effectuated with 22 to 24% humidity.
BLOOMING

Learn how to correctly use Stoller

Solutions IN Corn

Seeds

Biological Solutions
1. Masterfix L Gramíneas
100 mL/ha

Physiological
1. Stimulate
1 to 1.5 L/100 kg

V4

Nutrition and Defense
1. Cellerate
150 to 200 mL/ha

  1. Starter
    2 L/ha
    or
    2. Mastermins
    2 to 3 L/ha

V8
Physiological

  1. Mover
    2 to 3 L/ha
    2. Hold
    0.5 L/ha

Nutrition and Defense

  1. Phytogard
    2 L/ha

*Stimulate: in TS or foliar in V4 (250 to 500 mL/ha).
**Mover: 1 application in V8 or Vt or R2.
***Hold: 1 to 2 applications in V8 or Vt.

Corn benefits:
Improves germination, guaranteeing proper plant population.
Accelerates the growth of the aerial part and roots.
Improves water and nutrient absorption.
Improves cob development.
Greater resistance to diseases.
Promotes grain fill.
Increases yield.

Identification Guide

Nutrient Deficiency

Zinc
White or yellowish stripes between the main vein and the borders to which necrosis may follow and purple tints may occur. In extreme cases, a shortening of the internodes may take place.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Boron
Elongated white stripes on new leaves. Poor pollination, fl ower abortion, smaller ears and poor seed formation. Maize seeds bear voids at the silk end. A shortening of the internodes and a smaller stalk diameter.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Manganese
Intervein chlorosis on newer leaves. In more severe cases, long white stripes show up in the tissue and the tissue in the middle of the chlorotic area may die and fall off.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Iron
Intervein chlorosis starting with the newer leaves at the whole extension of the blade. A reduction in the ear formation. Under severe conditions, the new leaf will turn white.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Copper
The newer leaves become yellowish as soon as they begin to unfold, then the tips bow and bear necrosis. The margins are necrosed. The leaves twist or spiral.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Molybdenium
Small white spots on the larger interveins, leaf bending along the central vein. The manifestation of the visual defi ciency symptom of molybdenum is infrequent. However, low nutrient levels at the leaves affect the utilization of nitrogen by the crop.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Nitrogen
Yellowing of the older leaves from tip to the base in a “V” shape. Drying beginning at the tip of the leaves and progressing along the central vein. Thin stalks. Small ears.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Potassium
Cholorosis at the tips and margins of older leaves followed by drying of the tissue. The plant becomes susceptible to stalk rot. Reduction in the stalk diameter and in the overall production.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Calcium
The upper leaves successively bear a thin yellowing of the borders, a drying off effect, a necrosis and wavey edges of leaf margins. New leaves are slow to unfold.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Phosphorus
A dark green color of the older leaves followed by purple tints at the tip and margins; the stalks may also become purple. The ear formation is greatly affected.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Magnesium
The older leaves yellow at the margins and between veins, yielding a striped aspect. A necrosis of the chlorotic areas may follow. The underside of leaf turning purple.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Sulfur
reduction in the leaf volume and size. Chlorotic leaves having whitish spots at the base and a purple gradient beginning at the middle of the plant and creeping towards the sheath. Important: for every 10 parts of N, corn needs one part of S.
MACRONUTRIENTS

Check out some studies on 

Stoller products

“I’ve used Stoller products for more than 10 years in soy, corn and citrus. We’ve already had significant results with the program, especially with Stimulate and Starter Mn Platinum. I definitely recommend using these products.”

CARLOS E. SACARDO
(BURITIS/MG)

“We had several benefits from using Stoller products, with excellent cost-to-benefit ratio.”

JÚLIO QUEIROZ
(UNAÍ/MG)

“Excellent results after using Masterfix Gramíneas, even in such a difficult year. I noticed a difference right from the beginning of the plantation process. It was worth it, especially because of the low cost. I use it and I recommend it!”

OSAMU SATO
(QUINTA DO SOL/PR)