SOYBEAN

This section describes the soybean growth cycle and its stages through a practical and dynamic approach. In addition, you will also find a guide detailing the main nutrient deficiencies that can affect your crop and how to identify each of them.

When is the right time to use Stoller solutions in the

SOYBEAN growth cycle?

Learn more about the main stages and characteristics.

seed
V4/V5
R1/R2
R1/R3
R5.1
STOLLER INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS (SIS)

What happens at each stage

OF SOYBEAN DEVELOPMENT?

VE
Emergence: Cotyledons are above the soil surface. Observe the color of the area below the cotyledons. A green color means a soybean cultivar with white fl owers. Purple or purplish-green color identifi es a soybean cultivar with purple fl owers.
VEGETATIVE
VC
Cotyledons are well developed and the pair of opposite leaves is already open, in such a way that the edges of each single leaf do not touch each other. Thick cotyledons with a dark green color
VEGETATIVE
V1
The pair of opposite leaves is completely developed and the fi rst trifoliolate isopen, in such a way that theedges of each leafl et do not touch.
VEGETATIVE
V2
The first trifoliolate leaf is extended with the three leaflets expanded and the second trifoliolate already open. The edges of each leaflet are not touching. This indicates the beginning of formation of the first nodules.
VEGETATIVE
V3
The second trifoliolate has its three leaflets expanded and the thirdtrifoliolate is open in such a way that the edges of each leaflet do not touch.
VEGETATIVE
V4
The third trifoliolate is extended with its leaflets expanded with the fourth trifoliolate open. The edges of each leaflet are not touching. Between the V2 and V4 phases of development the yellowing and absicion of the cotyledons is observed indicating that the soybean plant already has a minimum amount of leaves and roots to support its growth.
VEGETATIVE
V5
The fourth trifoliolate has the three leaflets expanded and the fifth trifoliolate is already open. Until the V5-V6 development phases the soy plant expands a trifoliolate every 5-6 days. After these developmental phases, the expansion of a new trifoliolate occurs every 3-4 days. Depending on the cultivar and the time of sowing, the soybean can develop up to 20 trifoliolates (V21) along the main stem.
VEGETATIVE
R1
The beginning of flowering is indicated by one open flower on any node on the main stem. Depending on the soya cultivar, the flower may be white or purple.
REPRODUTIVE
R2
Full flowering. The majority of the in florescences in the main stem have open flowers.
REPRODUTIVE
R3
Beginning of pod development. Pods with 0.5 to 1.5 cm length on the upper third of the main stem. Pods with 1.5 cm indicate the end of flowering.
REPRODUTIVE
R4
Full pod development. The majority of the pods in the upper third of the main stem with a length of 2 to 4 cm (“pen-knife”).
REPRODUTIVE
R5.1
The beginning of the formation of the seed or grain. As of this phase the filling of the pods is noticeable to the touch or visually through the progressive accumulation of dry matter in the seeds. R5.1 means up to 10% of the maximum formation of seeds in the pods located on the upper third of the main stem.
REPRODUTIVE
R5.2
The majority of the pods in the upper third of the main stem have between 10 and 25% of their seeds fully developed seeds.
REPRODUTIVE
R5.3
Phase corresponding to medium seed formation in the pods. The majority of the pods located in the upper third of the main stem are 25 to 50% fully developed.
REPRODUTIVE
R5.4
The majority of the pods located on the upper third of the main stem with 50 to 75% fully developed seeds.
REPRODUTIVE
R5.5
The majority of the pods in the upper third of the main stem have between 75% and 100% of their seeds fully developed.
REPRODUTIVE

Learn how to correctly use Stoller

Solutions IN soybean

Indeterminate Growth Habit
Seed

1. Stimulate: single application during seed treatment or between the third and fifth trifoliate (250 to 500 mL/ha) and in the beginning of line closing (during flowering)

2. Co-Mo: during seed treatment or between the third and fifth trifoliate (100 to 150 mL/ha)

3. Installment option: Phytogard (1.0 to 1.5 L/ha): 1st application: in the beginning of line closing (during flowering) or along with the 1st application of rust fungicide + 2nd application: along with the 2nd application of rust fungicide. Sett (2 to 3 L/ha): 1st application: in the beginning of line closing (during flowering) or along with the 1st application of rust fungicide + 2nd application: along with the 2nd application of rust fungicide.

4. Hold: 1 to 2 applications: R1 stage (early flowering) or R1 + R3 stages (beginning of pod development). In regions with high disease rate, the 1st application can be performed in V8 (first application of carbendazim). * Beginning of line closing (during flowering) = 1st application of soybean rust fungicide.

Determinate Growth Habit

* Stimulate: single application during seed treatment or between stages V4/V6 (250 to 500 mL/ha).

** Co-Mo: during seed treatment or between stages V4/V6 (100 to 150 mL/ha).

*** Hold – 1 to 2 applications: R1 stage (early flowering) or R1 + R3 stages (beginning of pod development). In regions with high disease rate, the 1st application can be performed in V8 (first application of carbendazim).

STOLLER INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS (SIS)
The Stoller Integrated System features specific products covering each stage of the entire soybean life cycle. Using the SIS helps protect and bolster plant growth.

Identification Guide

Nutrient Deficiency

Zinc
Smaller new leaves having a spear shape and bearing chlorotic areas which may turn into a grey or brown coloration. Plants are smaller due to internode shortening. Bending of the stem and low production of the racemes.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Boron
Slow development of the growing points which may die. The leafl ets of newer leaves remain smaller, deformed, wrinkled, having a green- bluish coloration. Low flower production and marked abortion.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Manganese
The new leaves become gradually yellowish between the veins. The plants develop poorly, having small leaves. Brown necrotic areas appear on leaves as the defi ciency increases.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Iron
New leaves go from a pale green to a whitish coloration between the veins. Then, the veins also lose their coloration and necrotic spots may appear having a brown coloration close to the border.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Copper
Necrosis at the tip of the leafl ets of new leaves which progresses towards the border that curls up. The leaves take on a “dry” appearance and the color changes to a bluish green, bronze green or olive green.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Molybdenium Cobalt
Chlorotic leaves having symptoms similar to those due to lack of nitrogen. Flowers and raceme fall off. Reduction in vegetation and root growth, in the weight of the beans and production of them. Small and little active nodules having an internal pale yellow or greenish coloration.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Nitrogen
Lower leaves bear an overall chlorosis and may fall off as the symptom progresses. Newer leaves take on a lighter coloration, poor vegetation and root development.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Potassium
Older leaves are yellowishly speckled at the borders of the leafl ets. This chlorosis progresses toward the center of the leafl ets while a necrosis begins at the borders and progresses toward the center. Pods are poorly formed and numbers are reduced.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Calcium
Reduction of the meristem growth. The terminal buds become deteriorated and a petiole collapse occurs. The newer leaves become wrinkled with chlorosis beginning at the border and progressing toward the center. Marked flower and pod and seed abortion.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Phosphorus
Older leaves are smaller bearing a bluish dark green coloration. There may appear a chlorosis from the tip down to the base of the leaves. Purple color appears at the base of the stem. Pod production is reduced.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Magnesium
Initial yellowing of the borders and progressing to the center of older leaves which become chlorotic between veins. There may be a drying of the border.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Sulfur
The new leaves bear first the symptom of an overall chlorosis and a poor size. Then the leaves become yellowish as if it were due to a nitrogen deficiency.
MACRONUTRIENTS

Check out some studies on 

Stoller products

“We’ve used Stimulate in our crops for a long time now. We use it in soybeans, corn, beans, sorghum, and sugarcane. We use it in all of our crops, because we believe in the product’s potential to guarantee flawless hormonal balance, improving the plants’ physiology in general and maximizing the genetic potential of crops. I’d like to congratulate Stoller on creating this excellent product that helps farmers reach new levels in production.”

ALYSSON GUILHERME STRACK
(JABOTICABAL/SP)

“I’ve worked with Stoller Solutions since the 11/12 harvest, always seeking to maximize yield. Stoller products have secured a proper nutritional balance in my soybean crops, delivering return on investment.”

ALTAIR KÖLLN
(CANARANA/MT)

“I used Stoller products throughout the whole area and I’m very satisfied. I got a good soybean yield average, so I’ll definitely keep using it. What caught my attention was the improvement in branching and lower pod abortion.”

ETO ALBINO
(LOS CEDRALES/ALTO PARANÁ – PY)