Sugarcane

This section describes the sugarcane growth cycle and its stages through a practical and dynamic approach. In addition, you will also find a guide detailing the main nutrient deficiencies that can affect your crop and how to identify each of them.

When is the right time to use Stoller solutions in the

SUGARCANE growth cycle?

Learn more about the main stages and characteristics.

SUGARCANE PLANT CROP – SEED PLANTING
Sprouting
tillering
ratoon crop – clump formation
stem growth
definition of the final stem population
plant crop/ratoon crop – stem maturation
STOLLER INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS (SIS)
Stoller Integrated Solutions feature specific products covering each stage of the entire sugarcane life cycle. Using the SIS helps protect and bolster plant growth.

What happens at each stage

OF SUGARCANE DEVELOPMENT?

Germination
The presence of humidity in soil causes swelling of gemma and primary roots located in the node region. The bud rips the lignifi ed leaves of the gemma, emerges through the germinative pore and develops towards soil surface. At the same time, roots emerge from the stalk piece. Consumption of nutritional reserves of the stalk piece increases
Germination and Emergence
Emergence
Occurs 20 to 30 days after planting. The bud is a miniature stem that emerges above soil surface. From then on, it is called the primary stalk. The vegetative apical gemma grows vertically upwards which results in a succession of nodes and internodes and forms the sugar cane stalk. This phase is infl uenced by quality of plantlet, environment, season and treatment of plantation.
Germination and Emergence
Initial Rooting
Two to three weeks after emergence, fi brous roots appear at the base of the primary stalk. Their functions include anchoring of the stalk to the ground and absorption of water and nutrients. Together with the stalk piece roots, they form the primordial radicular system of the future sugar cane crown.
Germination and Emergence
Initial Leafing
Vertical upright growth of the primary stalk commanded by the meristematic activity of the vegetative apical gemma triggers the expansion of the fi rst leaves, thus increasing both the photosynthetic capacity and activity of the young plant. During this phase, a high rate of consumption of nutritional reserves of the stalk piece occurs.
Germination and Emergence
Start of Tillering
The vegetative apical gemma of the primary stalk has not yet established its absolute dominance which allows lateral gemma located at its base to develop meristemical activity that results in growth of lateral buds towards the soil surface. Since they emerge 20 to 30 days after the emergence of the primary stalk, they are called secondary
Tillering
Crown Formation
Tillering process consists of sequential budding of gemma on the primary stalk, which generates the secondary ones; those generate the tertiary ones etc., up to a given limit. Tillering defi nes the sugar cane crown formation as well as the fi nal stalk population fi t for harvesting.
Tillering
Crown Rooting
Like the primary stalk, all the additional stalks generated by tillering also develop fi brous roots and formation of the crown root system is the result of the root development of each tiller. 90 to 120 days after emergence of the primary stalk, approximately 100% of the crown roots occupy the top 30 cm of the soil. At this stage, the stalk piece roots practically do not exist anymore.
Tillering
Peak of Tillering
Maximum tillering potential is determined by the competition among shoots for environmental growth factors (light, water and nutrients). The highest yield is achieved with10 to 13 tillers per meter. At this stage, the ground is completely covered by plant leaves. Each crown has the maximum number of tillers and apical dominance of older tillers increases.
Tillering
Stalk Growth
After tillering have been completed the stalks that have survived the intense competition among tillers continue to grow and develop, gain height and start to accumulate sucrose at the base internodes. Older leaves start getting yellow and dry
Stalk Growth
Vigorous Root Growth
Growth of the root system continue laterally and in depth. Some fi brous roots grow together, forming cord-roots which can reach a depth of more than 1.5 meters. Approximately 85% of the roots occupy the fi rst 35-40 cm of the soil. The fi rst 3 to 4 internodes located at the base of the crown become visible at this stage.
Stalk Growth
Maximum Foliar Area
Both vigorous vertical plant growth and stalk diameter increase are stimulated high levels of by light, humidity, and temperature. In mid-summer, sugar cane can form up to one node and one internode per week. The foliar area index can reach values up to 7 squire meters per 0.2 squire meters of ground.
Stalk Growth
Definition of the Final Stalk Population
Stalk growth is the result of a succession of nodes and internodes formed by the apical gemma. When vertical growth ceases, sucrose translocation from leaves to ripe internodes located in the lower third of the stalk increase. Sugar cane may reach a height of more than 3 meters when maximum ve
Stalk Growth
Initial Maturation
Initial: maturation already start when growth increase after maximum tillering has been reached. Photosynthates that are not used for growth etc. Is translocated to the base internodes of stalks, where it is accumulated and stored.
Stalk Maturation
Maturation of the Middle
In the middle of the growth period, between the end of summer and the beginning of fall, when the stalks have reached a height of approximately 2 meters, yellowing and consequent drying of leaves of the middle third of the plant can be observed, which shows that sucrose is being deposited in the internodes of that region. The lower third of the stalk shows lignifi ed internodes partially or completely covered with dry leaves.
Stalk Maturation
Final Maturation
At the end of fall, beginning of winter when the photo period becomes shorter, rain gets irregular and temperatures milder, maturation activities are intensifi ed and growth is reduced. Increased sucrose translocation from leaves to ripe stalk internodes takes place, where it is stored.
Stalk Maturation
Peak of Tillering
Maximum tillering potential is determined by the competition among shoots for environmental growth factors (light, water and nutrients). The highest yield is achieved with10 to 13 tillers per meter. At this stage, the ground is completely covered by plant leaves. Each crown has the maximum number of tillers and apical dominance of older tillers increases.
Stalk Maturation

Learn how to correctly use Stoller

Solutions IN SUGARCANE

Stoller Integrated Solutions Sugarcane

Plant Crop Sprayed over the stem cuttings, in the plantation furrow, before covering.

Physiology
1. Stimulate
0.5 to 0.75 L/ha

Nutrition and Defense
2. Cane Starter
12 to 20 L/ha

RATOON CROP
Foliar spray 60 days after sprouting.

Physiology
1. Stimulate
0.5 to 0.75 L/ha

Nutrition and Defense
2. Cane Starter
3 to 6 L/ha
3. Cellerate
0.1 to 0.2 L/ha

PREHARVEST
Foliar spray 25 to 45 days before harvesting.

Physiology
1. Mover
5 L/ha

*We recommend adding Natur’l Óleo to the spray¬ solution, as instructed in the product leaflet.

Sugarcane benefits:
Stronger and more uniform sprouting.
More tillers and stems.
Better root development, improving water and nutrient absorption.
Bigger and greener leaves, improving photosynthesis capacity.
Higher productivity and longevity of the sugarcane field.

Identification Guide

Nutrient Deficiency

Zinc
A zinc deficiency can cause striped and chlorotic areas on young leaves which may evolve into a slight yellowing of the leaves. Dark green stripes at the side of the main vein. Smaller and thinner stalks. Shorter internodes.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Manganese
Young leaves show interveinal chlorosis starting at the centre and spreading to the whole length of the leaf. Longitudinal necrosis may split the leaves.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Boron
Wrinkled, distorted and brittle new leaves. Translucid lesion (“water bags”) among veins. Resembles “pokkah boeng” disease.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Iron
Interveinal chlorosis along the whole area of young leaves. At the beginning of root formation, the plant may become totally whitish in colour.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Copper
Plants may have broken and bent down young leaves leaving it with its top bent over. Green spots in chlorotic leaves may also be present and a widening (“sagging”) at the central part of the blades may occur.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Molybdenium
Small white-yellowish longitudinal chlorotic stripes located at the upper third part of the older leaves.
MICRONUTRIENTS
Nitrogen
Yellowing of older leaves which dry up prematurely. Short and thin stalks. Decrease in leaf formation.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Phosphorus
Shorter and narrower leaves than usual. Dark green or bluish green color of older leaves. Shorter and thinner stalks. Reduced or even absent new cane shoots.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Potassium
A lack of potassium can be identifi ed by older leaf borders bearing a yellow-orange chlorosis. Red spots appear on the upper surface of main veins (restrained to the epidermis). Distorted shoots (“the top in the form of a bunch”) and short internodes can occur.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Magnesium
Chlorotic spotting of older leaves can develop into necrosis giving a rusty appearance.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Calcium
Young leaves curl downwards forming “hooks”. As the symptoms become more severe, the end and borders of the interveinal area may dry up. Stalks can be soft and thin.
MACRONUTRIENTS
Sulfur
Young leaves show uniform chlorosis bearing light purple colour its borders. Leaves are smaller and narrower.
MACRONUTRIENTS

Check out some studies on 

Stoller products

 “I used Stoller Integrated Solutions for Ratoon Crop and, after an extended drought, I had excellent stubble sprouting and strong growth across the entire sugarcane field. That’s why I’ve already purchased Stoller Integrated Solutions for Ratoon Crop for 2011.”

RENATO NAPOLEÃO ZANETTI
(OLÍMPIA/SP)

“My yield was solid and even, with no major cutting losses in several crops, since I used Stoller Integrated Solutions for Ratoon Crop in four cuttings, averaging 117 tons per hectare.”

PAULO CESAR FERMINO CARLOS
(AGRONOMIST AND FARMER – OLÍMPIA/SP)

“Stoller Integrated Solutions for Plant Crop outperformed the untreated parcels, showing stronger bud growth and yield.”

SILVIO ANTONIO GERALDO
(AGRONOMIST AND FARMER – CAJOBI/SP)